Constipation is very common in children of all ages. Of all visits to the pediatrician, 3% are in some way related to this complaint.Constipation is defined as either a decrease in the frequency of bowel movements, or the painful passage of bowel movements. Children 1-4 years of age typically have a bowel movement 1-2 times a day. When children are constipated for a long time they may begin to soil their underwear. The medical term used to describe the soiling occurring in chronically constipated children is encopresis. The most common symptoms of constipation are;
-Your child has hard or small stools that are difficult to pass
-Your child consistently skips days without having normal bowel movements
-Your child has large stools and painful bowel movements
-Your child has abdominal pain, poor appetite and crankiness.
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Dr. London advises:
Asthma and Allergies
Asthma and allergies are very common in children. With the right treatment, children with asthma or allergies can lead normal, happy lives. Learn more about how asthma and allergies can affect your child and what you can do to reduce asthma and allergy triggers.
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Most fevers in children are due to a virus; however, sometimes fever may be signs of a more serious illness, such as UTI (urine tract infection), bacteremia (bacteria in the blood stream). The most accurate way to take your child's temperature is orally or rectally with a digital thermometer.
In the child younger then 4 years, take the temperature rectally. Normal oral temperature is about 98.6'F (37'C) up to 99.0'F (37.2C). Normal rectal temperature is 99.6'F (37.6'C) up to 100.4'F. If you check axillary ( under the arm), normal temperature is 97.6'F ( 36.6'C) up to 98.6'F (37'C).Fever is present when the temperature is above 100.4F (38.0C) oral/ear, or 101.4F(38.5C) rectal. Fever under 101.0'F (38.3 C) oral/ ear or 102.0 (38.9C) rectal does not need to be treated unless your child has history of febrile seizure or uncomfortable.
If your child has fever: give him or her Tylenol (Acetaminophen) 15mg/kg every 4-6 h, or Motrin 10mg/kg ( for kids older then 6 month) every 6 h, encourage your child to drink, keep clothing to a minimum because excess body heat is lost through the skin call your doctor

Dr. London advises:
Guide to Immunizations
Fully immunizing your child according to the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics can help protect your child from many common infections. These infections can lead to serious and even life threatening complications. Although the vaccines may have mild side effects and more rarely, serious complications, in general, it is safer to immunize your children than allow them to get any of the infections that they prevent.
Dr. London advises:
Dehydration is a condition in which the body does not have enough water to function properly.The child can lose a lot of water if she or he has diarrhea, vomiting or has been exercising for a long time without having anything to drink. If water is not replaced, dehydration could lead to serious complications. Infants and young children are at greatest risk for dehydration. You can help your child by encouraging him/her to drink clear liquids with electrolytes, such as Pedialyte. You can buy Pedialyte at the drugstores or supermarkets.
Call your doctor immediately if your child :
  • Does not have urine for 8 hours
  • Appears less alert
  • Refuses to drink fluids
  • If vomiting is worsening
  • Has dry mouth
  • Does not have tears while crying